Basic Country Information

  • Region: East & South Asia & Pacific
  • Income Group: Lower Middle
  • Population: 29.14 million
  • GNI per Capita: 3800 USD
  • Urban population : 20.6 % of total
  • Life expectancy at birth: 70.8 years
  • Human Development Index (HDI): 0.602

How does Nepal control corruption?

Forecasted trend:
Integrity Transparency
Country’s Score 5.32/10 9/19
World Rank 80/114 90/129
Regional Rank 15/18 18/20
Income group Rank 16/35 19/38

Index of Public Integrity

IPI Score: 5.32 / 10
The IPI score is the mean of the six components scores, which result from the standardization and normalization of original source data to range between 1 and 10 using a min-max-transformation, with higher values representing better performance.
Components Component Score
Income Group
Opportunities for Corruption
Administrative Burden 7.6 92/113 22/0 12/18
Trade Openness 9.1 46/113 6/0 3/18
Administrative Transparency 5.5 70/114 14/35 14/18
Online Services 3.8 99/114 30/35 17/18
Budget Transparency 8.07 38/114 6/35 8/18
Constraints on Corruption
Judicial Independence 4.6 65/114 16/35 12/18
Freedom of the Press 6.5 71/114 13/35 7/18
E-Citizenship 3.43 85/114 18/35 13/18

Opportunities are permanent enabling circumstances for corruption. Empirical evidence exists that administrative discretion (lack of administrative transparency and poor regulation) combined with unaccountable resources (non-transparent public finance, both from domestic sources and international aid) create opportunities for corruption.

Constraints are permanent disabling circumstances of corruption. They encompass the legal response of authorities as well as the response by society (a free press and digitally enabled citizens organized as civil society or as individual voters).

Societies manage to control corruption if they find the right balance between opportunities and constraints.

Read more in the methodology.


For Budget Transparency, last value available is for 2019. For Online Services, last value available is for 2020. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. For the E-citizenship sub-components, last values available are also for 2020, and missing values in any of the sub-indicators were replaced with the latest available data point.

No IPI data for Nepal

Transparency in Nepal

T-Index Score: 9 / 19
Income Group

De Facto Transparency: 7 / 14

De Facto Components

De facto components refer to the online availability, accessibility, and coverage of public data in selected relevant domains. These were assessed as completely existing (1 point), existing with partial information or paid access (0.5 point), or not existing (0 points).

Past expenditures (last fiscal year) Yes
Current expenditures (budget tracker) No
Public Procurement Portal Partial
Land cadaster Partial
Register of commerce No
Auditor General's report Yes
Supreme Court's hearings schedule Yes
Supreme Court's rulings Yes
Financial disclosures for public officials No
Conflict of interest disclosures No
Official Development Assistance (ODA) Yes
Mining concessions No
Building permits in the capital city No
Official gazette Yes

De Jure Transparency: 2 / 5

De Jure Components

De jure components refer to the existence of formal transparency commitments in relevant selected domains. These were assessed as existing (1 point) or not (0 points).

Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA) No
Open Government Partnership (OGP) No
United Nations Conventions Against Corruption (UNCAC) Yes
Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering (or equivalent) Yes
Plurinational transparency agreement (EITI, OECD, WTO GPA, or CPTPP) No

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Note: Links last accessed in February 2022.

No TI data for Nepal

Nepal's Corruption Forecast

Forecasted trend:
Nepal has been progressing only incrementally on some indicators in the past decade, especially fiscal transparency and e-government, and lags on judicial independence and administrative burden. Only its progress on e-citizens passes a significance test. Despite its low human development it can still progress by reaping some benefits of e-government reforms, but only extensive regulatory and administrative measures to eliminate rents and prevent corruption would make a radical change. Both administrative transparency and online services are poor, so their inclusion in place of Doing Business indicators caused Nepal to lose ground in its IPI 2021 score compared to 2019.
See Nepal's profile on the Index of Public Integrity.
Components 2007/8 2020 Trendline
Budget Transparency 5.62 6.93 0
Administrative Burden 7.73 7.54 0
Judicial Independence 5.02 4.49 0
Press Freedom 4.78 5.32 0
E-Citizenship 1.08 2.09 1
  positive change;   negative change;   change not statically significant.

For Budget Transparency, period considered is 2008-2019. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. Due to insufficient data on Facebook users, E-citizenship was computed as the mean of the remaining two sub-indicators (fixed broadband subscriptions and Internet users). Missing values for 2020 in either of the sub-indicators were replaced with the latest available data point.

No Forecast data for Nepal