Romania

Basic Country Information

  • Region: Europe & North America
  • Income Group: Upper Middle
  • Population : 19.29 millions
  • GNI per Capita: 28833
  • Urban population : 54.2 % of total
  • Life expectancy at birth: 75.5
  • Human Development Index (HDI): 0.828

How does Romania control corruption?

Forecasted trend:
Stationary
Integrity Transparency
Country’s Score 7.64/10 17/20
World Rank 29/114 10/129
Regional Rank 23/31 6/33
Income group Rank 2/29 4/36

Index of Public Integrity

IPI Score: 7.64 / 10
The IPI score is the mean of the six components scores, which result from the standardization and normalization of original source data to range between 1 and 10 using a min-max-transformation, with higher values representing better performance.
Components Component Score
(max=10)
World
Rank
Income Group
Rank
Regional
Rank
Opportunities for Corruption
Administrative Burden
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/ / /
Trade Openness / / /
Administrative Transparency 8.88 9/114 2/29 7/31
Online Services 7.14 52/114 19/29 26/31
Budget Transparency 9.14 13/114 4/29 8/31
Constraints on Corruption
Judicial Independence 5.7 43/114 7/29 22/31
Freedom of the Press 7.72 36/114 5/29 25/31
E-Citizenship 7.26 42/114 6/29 27/31

Opportunities are permanent enabling circumstances for corruption. Empirical evidence exists that administrative discretion (lack of administrative transparency and poor regulation) combined with unaccountable resources (non-transparent public finance, both from domestic sources and international aid) create opportunities for corruption.

Constraints are permanent disabling circumstances of corruption. They encompass the legal response of authorities as well as the response by society (a free press and digitally enabled citizens organized as civil society or as individual voters).

Societies manage to control corruption if they find the right balance between opportunities and constraints.

Read more in the methodology.

 

For Budget Transparency, last value available is for 2019. For Online Services, last value available is for 2020. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. For the E-citizenship sub-components, last values available are also for 2020, and missing values in any of the sub-indicators were replaced with the latest available data point.

No IPI data for Romania

Transparency in Romania

T-Index Score: 17 / 20
T-index
World
Average
Income Group
Average
Regional
Average

De Facto Transparency: 12 / 14

De Facto Components

De facto components refer to the online availability, accessibility, and coverage of public data in selected relevant domains. These were assessed as completely existing (1 point), existing with partial information or paid access (0.5 point), or not existing (0 points).

Past expenditures (last fiscal year) Yes
Current expenditures (budget tracker) Partial
Public Procurement Portal Yes
Land cadaster Partial
Register of commerce Yes
Auditor General's report Yes
Supreme Court's hearings schedule Yes
Supreme Court's rulings Yes
Financial disclosures for public officials Yes
Conflict of interest disclosures Yes
Official Development Assistance (ODA) Yes
Mining concessions Yes
Building permits in the capital city No
Official gazette Yes

De Jure Transparency: 5 / 6

De Jure Components

De jure components refer to the existence of formal transparency commitments in relevant selected domains. These were assessed as existing (1 point) or not (0 points).

Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA) Yes
Open Government Partnership (OGP) Yes
Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) No
United Nations Conventions Against Corruption (UNCAC) Yes
OECD Convention against Bribery of International Officials Yes
Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering (or equivalent) Yes

Give us feedback on our sources
Please download our full dataset here
Note: Links last accessed in February 2022.

No TI data for Romania

Romania's Corruption Forecast

Forecasted trend:
Stationary
Romania has doubled its income over the past 12 years, but its citizens still stand out in the Eurobarometer of being the most affected by corruption in their daily lives in the EU. Its good ranking in the IPI is due to administrative simplification reforms and an increase in administrative and fiscal transparency. Its regulatory quality still needs serious improvement, and its e-government still has a long way to go despite some progress. While the size of rents was constantly reduced due to earlier privatizations, and the percentage of petty bribes declined significantly due to modernization of the administration, public procurement remains quite particularistic, legislation is often shaped by private lobbies and an industry of fake credentials in education has become institutionalized. Its judicial independence progressed significantly but inconsistently over the past 12 years, but remains under the level of many common-law developing countries. Similar to Brazil, and with similar setbacks, Romania had some success in ending the culture of impunity (with prime ministers, ministers and generals imprisoned for corruption in massive numbers). It has very high demand for good governance from its e-citizens, but also massive social media manipulation on a par with the Philippines, which explains low rates of vaccination and increasing confiscation of the corruption theme by populists.
See Romania's profile on the Index of Public Integrity.
Components 2008 2020 Trendline
Budget Transparency 8.69 8.25 0
Administrative Burden 7.02 8.89 1
Judicial Independence 4.13 5.5 1
Press Freedom 6.22 6.58 0
E-Citizenship 3 5.86 1
  positive change;   negative change;   change not statically significant.

For Budget Transparency, period considered is 2008-2019. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. Due to insufficient data on Facebook users, E-citizenship was computed as the mean of the remaining two sub-indicators (fixed broadband subscriptions and Internet users).

No Forecast data for Romania