Basic Country Information
- Region: Europe & North America
- Income Group: Upper Middle
- Population : 19.29 millions
- GNI per Capita: 28833
- Urban population : 54.2 % of total
- Life expectancy at birth: 75.5
- Human Development Index (HDI): 0.828
How does Romania control corruption?
|Income group Rank||2/29||4/36|
Index of Public Integrity
|Opportunities for Corruption|
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|Constraints on Corruption|
|Freedom of the Press||7.72||36/114||5/29||25/31|
Opportunities are permanent enabling circumstances for corruption. Empirical evidence exists that administrative discretion (lack of administrative transparency and poor regulation) combined with unaccountable resources (non-transparent public finance, both from domestic sources and international aid) create opportunities for corruption.
Constraints are permanent disabling circumstances of corruption. They encompass the legal response of authorities as well as the response by society (a free press and digitally enabled citizens organized as civil society or as individual voters).
Societies manage to control corruption if they find the right balance between opportunities and constraints.Read more in the methodology.
For Budget Transparency, last value available is for 2019. For Online Services, last value available is for 2020. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. For the E-citizenship sub-components, last values available are also for 2020, and missing values in any of the sub-indicators were replaced with the latest available data point.
Transparency in Romania
De Facto Transparency: 12 / 14
De Facto Components
De facto components refer to the online availability, accessibility, and coverage of public data in selected relevant domains. These were assessed as completely existing (1 point), existing with partial information or paid access (0.5 point), or not existing (0 points).
|Past expenditures (last fiscal year)||Yes|
|Current expenditures (budget tracker)||Partial|
|Public Procurement Portal||Yes|
|Register of commerce||Yes|
|Auditor General's report||Yes|
|Supreme Court's hearings schedule||Yes|
|Supreme Court's rulings||Yes|
|Financial disclosures for public officials||Yes|
|Conflict of interest disclosures||Yes|
|Official Development Assistance (ODA)||Yes|
|Building permits in the capital city||No|
De Jure Transparency: 5 / 6
De Jure Components
De jure components refer to the existence of formal transparency commitments in relevant selected domains. These were assessed as existing (1 point) or not (0 points).
|Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA)||Yes|
|Open Government Partnership (OGP)||Yes|
|Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI)||No|
|United Nations Conventions Against Corruption (UNCAC)||Yes|
|OECD Convention against Bribery of International Officials||Yes|
|Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering (or equivalent)||Yes|
Romania's Corruption Forecast
For Budget Transparency, period considered is 2008-2019. For Judicial Independence, last value available is for 2019. Due to insufficient data on Facebook users, E-citizenship was computed as the mean of the remaining two sub-indicators (fixed broadband subscriptions and Internet users).